World Health Organization


The World Health Organization (WHO) is a  specialized agency of the United Nations  responsible for international  public health .The WHO Constitution states its main objective as “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health”.  Headquartered in  Geneva, Switzerland , it has six regional offices and 150 field offices worldwide.

The WHO was established on 7 April 1948. The first meeting of the  World Health Assembly  (WHA), the agency’s governing body, took place on 24 July of that year. The WHO incorporated the assets, personnel, and duties of the  League of Nations ‘ Health Organization and the  Office International d’Hygiène Publique , including the  International Classification of Diseases  (ICD).  Its work began in earnest in 1951 after a significant infusion of financial and technical resources.

The WHO’s mandate includes advocating for universal health care , monitoring  public health  risks, coordinating responses to health emergencies, and promoting health and well-being.  It provides technical assistance to countries, sets international health standards, and collects data on global health issues. A publication, the  World Health Report , provides assessments of worldwide health topics. The WHO also serves as a forum for discussions of health issues.

The WHO has played a leading role in several public health achievements, most notably the  eradication  of  smallpox , the near- eradication of polio , and the development of an  Ebola vaccine . Its current priorities include  communicable diseases , particularly  HIV/AIDS ,  Ebola ,  COVID-19 ,  malaria  and  tuberculosis ;  non-communicable diseases  such as heart disease and cancer;  healthy diet , nutrition, and  food security ;  occupational health ; and  substance abuse . Its  World Health Assembly , the agency’s decision-making body, elects and advises an executive board made up of 34 health specialists. It selects the director-general, sets goals and priorities, and approves the budget and activities. The director-general is  Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus  of Ethiopia.[10]

The WHO relies on contributions from member states (both assessed and voluntary) and private donors for funding. Its total approved budget for 2020–2021 is over $7.2 billion, of which the majority comes from voluntary contributions from member states.  Contributions are assessed by a formula that includes GDP per capita. Among the largest contributors were Germany (which contributed 12.18% of the budget), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (11.65%), and the United States (7.85%).


Coalition For Epidemic Preparedness Innovations


The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) is a foundation that takes donations from public, private, philanthropic, and  civil society  organisations, to finance independent research projects to develop  vaccines  against  emerging infectious diseases  (EID).

CEPI is focused on the  World Health Organization ‘s (WHO) ” blueprint priority diseases “, which include: the  Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus  ( MERS-CoV ), the  Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2  ( SARS-CoV-2 ), the  Nipah virus , the  Lassa fever virus , and the  Rift Valley fever  virus, as well as the  Chikungunya virus  and the hypothetical, unknown pathogen ” Disease X “.  CEPI investment also requires “equitable access” to the vaccines during  outbreaks , [7]  although subsequent CEPI policy changes may have compromised this criteria. 

CEPI was conceived in 2015 and formally launched in 2017 at the  World Economic Forum  (WEF) in   Davos  , Switzerland. It was co-founded and co-funded with US$460 million from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the  Wellcome Trust ,  and a consortium of nations composed of  India ,   Germany ,  Japan  and  Norway , which the  European Union  (2019) and  United Kingdom  (2020) subsequently joined.   CEPI is headquartered in  Oslo , Norway


Novavax Covid-19 Vaccine


COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access, abbreviated as COVAX, is a worldwide initiative aimed at equitable access to  COVID-19 vaccines  directed by  Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance  (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, or GAVI), the  Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations  (CEPI), and the  World Health Organization  (WHO). It is one of the three pillars of the  Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator , an initiative begun in April 2020 by the WHO, the  European Commission , and the government of  France  as a response to the  COVID-19 pandemic . COVAX coordinates international resources to enable  low-to-middle-income countries  equitable access to COVID-19  tests ,  therapies , and  vaccines . UNICEF  is the key delivery partner, leveraging its experience as the largest single vaccine buyer in the world and working on the procurement of COVID-19 vaccine doses, as well logistics, country readiness and in-country delivery.

By 19 October 2020, 184 countries had joined COVAX.

COVAX began distributing vaccines in February 2021. Though COVAX promised 100 million doses by the end of March, this goal was not reached until 6 July. By mid-August of 2021, COVAX delivered 200 million vaccine doses to nearly 140 countries instead of the 600 million doses initially projected. The continued shortage of COVID-19 vaccines delivered through COVAX is blamed on “vaccine nationalism” by richer nations, and the diversion of 400 million  Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine  doses, produced under license by the  Serum Institute of India  (SII), for domestic use in India.

Gates Foundation

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation


The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), a merging of the William H. Gates Foundation and the Gates Learning Foundation,  is an American  private foundation  founded by  Bill Gates  and  Melinda French Gates . Based in  Seattle, Washington , it was launched in 2000 and is reported as of 2020 to be the second largest charitable foundation in the world, holding $49.8 billion in assets. The primary stated goals of the foundation are to enhance healthcare and reduce extreme poverty across the world, and to expand educational opportunities and access to information technology in the U.S. Key individuals of the foundation include  Bill Gates ,  Melinda French Gates ,  Warren Buffett , chief executive officer Mark Suzman, and  Michael Larson .

The BMGF had an  endowment  of approximately $50 billion as of December 31, 2020. The scale of the foundation and the way it seeks to apply business techniques to giving makes it one of the leaders in  venture philanthropy , though the foundation itself notes that the philanthropic role has limitations .In 2007, its founders were ranked as the second most generous philanthropists in the U.S., behind Warren Buffett. As of 2018, Bill Gates and Melinda French Gates had donated around $36 billion to the foundation.  Since its founding, the foundation has endowed and supported a broad range of social, health, and education developments, including the establishment of the  Gates Cambridge Scholarships  at  Cambridge University .